9th International Conference on Corporate Social Responsibility

 16 – 18 June 2009

Zagreb School of Economics & Management , Croatia

 

Accepted papers

Stakeholder inclusiveness in sustainability reporting at South African mining companies; Deidre Lingenfelder & Adele Thomas, South Africa

How Does Positive and Negative CSR Information Influence the Intentions of Various Stakeholders?; Umit Alniacik, Gonul Z Balkir & Esra Aliacik, Turkey

Social responsibility benchmarking of the commercial centres - real estate sector; Idalina Dias Sardinha, Paula Antunes & Lucas Reijnders, Portugal

Corporate Citizenship and republican business ethics; Jacob Dahl Rendtorff, Denmark

Corporate social responsibility ratings – a Polish perspective; Maria Aluchna, Poland

Business Social Responsibility: How are SMEs Doing in Gauteng, South Africa?; Watson Ladzani & Solly Seeletse, South Africa

Role of Corporations in Development of CSR; Mirjana Matesic, Croatia

CSR and Global Supply Chains: Towards more collaborative models of Governance?; Antonio Tencati, Italy

Corporate Social Responsibility in Indonesia : Regulation and Implementation Issues; Mukti Fajar, Indonesia

The privatisation policy and its implementation in Swaziland; Md. Humayun Kabir, Swaziland

Expanding the business case for Corporate Social Responsibility: Empirical evidence from Fiji; Andrew Penn Bradly, Australia

Contextualising NGO – Business Partnerships: the effect of contextual factors on NGO – business partnership development; Janni Thusgard Pedersen & Peter Neergaard, Denmark

Corporate Social Responsibility and Innovation: Empirical Testing of their Relationship; Isabel Gallego-Álvarez, Isabel-María García-Sánchez, José-Manuel Prado-Lorenzo & Luís Rodríguez-Domínguez, Spain

Transnational corporations and CSR: Influenced by global or local networks?; Roger Levermore, UK

The process of international financial standard setting: a Habermasian perspective; Dominique Bessire, France A Humanistic Economy -Life-enriching businesses with life-enriching bottom lines; Irene Nygaardsvik & Ratka Jurkovic, Norway

Environmental sustainability and corporate performance in extractive industry; Olusegun Vincent, Angela Ayios, Wafi Al-Karaghouli, UK

Integrating Sustainability in the Business Culture: An Action Research; Majda Tafra, Croatia

The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Efforts by University in Malaysia for the Environment: An Analysis; Jamilah Hj Ahmad, Lim Koon Ong & Suriati Saad, Malaysia

Millennium's Dilemma: Genetically Modified Products and Their Reflections from the Social Responsibility Perspective; R. Şeminur Topal & Hande Gürdağ, Turkey

Strategic Configuration of International Productive Assets: The case of Global Pharmaceutical Industry; Philippe Rebiere, France

Corporate Social Responsibility in Post-Apartheid South Africa; Sharlene Ramlall, South Africa

Student attitudes to socially responsible business: a case study of mine workers in Chile; Debbie Holley, UK

Objectivism vs Subjectivism in Academe: an example of Bourdieu’s concept of Mutilation in the Social Sciences?; Miriam Green, UK

Clusters in corporate social responsibility; Maria João Santos, Portugal

Corporate Volunteering in Portugal; Maria João Santos, Portugal

Fluidity of Regulation-CSR Nexus and Social Reporting: The Multinational Corporate Corruption Model; Onyeka Osuji, UK

The Role of Non-governmental Organizations in Improving Social Entrepreneurship Skills of University Students; Ilke Oruc & Muammer Sarikaya

Municipal Utilities as Publicly Owned Enterprises – A Cross Between Private Companies and Public-Political Management. Governmental influence on the corporate accountability as stakeholders of the organization; Linne Marie Lauesen, Denmark

The three directional tug of war within customer data management: business strategy versus regulation versus corporate social responsibility; Diana Luck, UK

Sustainable practice: The real triple bottom line; Güler Aras, Turkey & David Crowther, UK

Is Ethical Marketing an Oxymoron?; Khosro S Jahdi, UK

Exploring Corporate Social Responsibility in the UK Healthcare Managerial Sector; Faruk Merali, UK

Influence of Global Financial Market on Process of Harminization of Financial Statements for Listed Companies all over the World; Branka Ramljak & Paško Anić – Antić, Croatia

Political and economic imperatives of monetary sovereignty; Branka Mraović, Croatia

On the Concept of Civic Entrepreneurship; Ismaël Sene, France

Supporting sustainable consumption of consumer durables; Shahla Seifi, Malaysia & David Crowther, UK

Institutionalizing corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Uganda: Does it matter?; Stephen K. Nkundabanyanga & Alfred Okwee, Uganda

Translation of sustainability measures in management control systems - Sustainability strategy and product design; Nico P. Berhausen, Germany

Regulatory Framework on Corporate Governance for Credit Institutions – Croatian Case; Djurdjica Ognjenovic, Croatia

Could Corporate Governance be measured by a single number?; Djurdjica Ognjenovic, Croatia

What kind of CSR in crisis time?; Rodica Milena Zaharia, Romania

(Re)Thinking the Corporate Value through Social Responsibility; Rute Abreu & Francisco Carreira, Portugal

Social Responsibility of the Local Action Groups; Fátima David, Rute Abreu & Odete Pinheiro, Portugal

The Social Entrepreneurship Continuum: A Comparative Study of Models and SE Examples from Canada and Croatia; Kyleen Myrah & Tina Lee Odinsky-Zec, Croatia

Sustainability and the modern zoo; Tina Lee Odinsky-Zec, Croatia

Static to Dynamic Corporate Governance Frameworks: the role of definitions; Ismail Adelopo, UK

Differences and congruence between corporate social responsibility and sustainability through a systematic analysis of the literature; Z. Gurabardhi, B. Swinkels, F. Zijlstra, G.Kok, The Netherlands

Socially responsible business linkages as a strategy for Poverty alleviation: The case of the Mauritian Hotel sector; Nicholas Ragodoo, Mauritius

Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility on the Internet: A Case Study in Turkey; Serap Çabuk, Dilek Penpece & Murat Gülmez, Turkey

CSR in the context of globalisation in Mauritius: A business sector’s approach; Roshni Deepa Gokulsing, Mauritius

Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Istanbul Stock Exchange; Banu Dincer & Caner Dincer, Turkey

Social Commitment of Spanish Savings Banks: Beyond Good Words; Bernabé Escobar Pérez, Spain

Social Responsibility Role of The Media in Business News Markets: Evidence From Turkey; Halil İbrahim Bulut & Fikret Çankaya, Turkey

Students attitudes towards Cause Related Marketing. A study from Romania; Grigore Georgiana & Alin Stancu, Romania

Corporate Social Disclosure by Financial Institutions: Comparative evidence from UK and Spain; Ismail Adelopo, UK & Ramiro Cea, Spain

Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: Evidence From The İstanbul Stock Exchange; Osman Karamustafa, Halil İbrahim Bulut & Murat Berberoğlu, Turkey

Corporate Environmental Management and Energy Efficency as Part of CSR - Two Croatian Cases; Ivana Ostoic, Croatia

Beyond Regulation: Fact, Fiction and the Eccentric World of Finance; Julia Shaw, UK

CSR in Media: Case Study of RTL in Croatia; Maša Magzan & Lucija Mihaljević, Croatia

Sustainable Finance and Ethical/Corporate Social Responsibility, The new paradigm: Generali Insurance Company case of study; Maurizio Fanni & Lucely Vargas Preciado, Austria

Partnering with a purpose: ‘Stakeholder’ Engagement in Lifeline NZ; Nitha N.Palakshappa, New Zealand Enabling Environment for Corporate Social Responsibility Activities in Croatia: Future Entrepreneurs’ Perception, Gordana Coric, Croatia

Challenges of Environmental Accounting in Tourist Destination as a Trend of Sustainable Development, Milena Peršić, Sandra Janković & Vanja Vejzagić, Croatia

Governance in the Financial Markets – Understanding Self-RegulationS. Igbinosa & Blessing Omoruyi, Benin CSR: think negative, Paolo d'Anselmi, Italy

Environmental Reporting Practices of Malaysian Companies: Comparing Government-linked (GLCs) and Non-government-linked Companies (non-GLCs) in Environmentally Sensitive Industries, Norsyahida Mokhtar & Maliah Sulaiman, Malaysia

Are Croatian companies socially responsible?, Mirna Coric & Mirna Korican, Croatia

Employing Football as means for Sustainable Corporate Social Programmes, Anagostopoulus

Social Innovation in India, Huzaifa Khorakiwala

Social Responsibility of University: The Way Forward, Jamilah Hj Ahmad, Lim Koon Ong, Suriati Saad

Measuring the impacts of employee volunteering, Marija Ivković, Smart Kolektiv & Alekse Nenadovića, Belgarde

DOCTORAL COLLOQUIUM

Are financial market Greenhouse gas-efficient?; Andrea Liesen, UK

Understanding the interface between corporate social responsibility and poverty reduction; Sally Curtis, Australia

Governance mechanisms, intellectual capital and corporate performance; Stephen K. Nkundabanyanga, Uganda

Employees ‘Lost in Translation’: From Stakeholder Management to Employee Engagement and Implications for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Practices ; Sanija Weber, UK

The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Respect of Socio-Economic Development in South Africa; Sharlene Ramlall, South Africa

CSR and communication; Marion Secka, Austria

Corporate Governance and State-owned Enterprises: A critical study of corporate governance regime; Miko Kamal, Australia

 

 

Abstracts

 

Corporate Citizenship and republican business ethics; Jacob Dahl Rendtorff, Denmark

Abstract

The concept of the good citizen corporation based on the theory of republican business ethics is the fundamental point of focus in this analysis. The paper defines the concept of corporate citizenship in the framework of republican business ethics. The paper looks specifically at the concept of the good citizen corporation as basis for corporate social responsibility. The argument is that we need to presuppose concepts of good corporate citizenship as the basis for corporate social responsibility. On this basis the paper is structured in the following sections: 1. Beyond neoliberal democracy. 2. Republican business ethics. 3. Corporate citizenship and global business ethics. 4. Criticism of corporate citizenship. 5. Citizenship as corporate legitimacy. 6. From corporate citizenship and trust to corporate social responsibility. 7. Conclusion

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Corporate Social Responsibility in Indonesia : Regulation and Implementation Issues; Mukti Fajar, Indonesia

Abstract

Indonesian Government already made the regulation regarding Corporate Social Responsibility in Invesment Act 2007, Limited Liability Company Act 2007, and State Owned Corporation Act 2003. The basic idea of it was the mandate from the Constitution of Republic Indonesia 1945 concerning the national economic and social welfare has to be protected by the Government. Besides that, the government of Indonesia would like to prevent and reduce the environmental violation that had been made by corporation’s activities. This research aims to answer and elaborate the questions as follows; First, which one better, whether the CSR will be the mandatory or voluntary merely? The second question is how far the scope of CSR in Indonesia? Third, how is the implementation CSR in Indonesia? The study was analyzed with the reflexive-law theory that used to be handled the limitation of formal law approaching as the intervention of state in the area of private law, including the corporation. The reflexive law theory also trying to find the solution of the limit of law with the self-regulation, hence corporation obliges to report the social reporting to the states. Using the socio-legal research and comparative law as a methodology, the object of this paper object is the implementation of CSR of the MNCs, National Private Corporation and State Owned Corporation. The respondents of this research are the company and government officer and also from the expert and NGO officer, that was used to do further analysis, descriptively with qualitative analysis. The empirical study found that : first, CSR as the corporation activity can be legally bound by the regulation in Indonesia, based on Constitution of Republic Indonesia 1945 and the moral value. In another side, the research also found that the government needs to support the corporation doing CSR with the tax deduction policy, in order to eliminate operational cost of corporations. Second, within that obligation, the most important thing is that to give an authority to corporations to have self regulation and to give social reporting toward the society. Third, definition of CSR in the Limited Liability Company Act 2007 and Invesment Ac 2007 must be revised with similar concepts and definitions of CSR and more clearly as a reference. The diversity of the CSR implementation models and motives by corporations should be appreciated, since it is difficult to avoid. Corporations should have a freedom to implement the CSR in accordance with the circumstances faced. Key Word : corporate social responsibility, social reporting, self regulation.

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Expanding the business case for Corporate Social Responsibility: Empirical evidence from Fiji; Andrew Penn Bradly, Australia

Abstract

Like many developing countries, the enabling environment for CSR in Fiji can be described as weak and lacking many of the usual drivers for the adoption of CSR, which include government regulation, media scrutiny, ethical demand, and NGO activism. Yet in spite of these apparent weaknesses in the governance of CSR, this paper presents evidence of the important role played by intermediary actors that serve to encourage and regulate community involvement in Fiji. While the paper gives extensive attention to the pivotal role of land tenure arrangements in Fiji, it also considers the importance of industry associations and unions for fostering CSR practices in the tourism industry. Tourism leases in Fiji are administered by the Native Lands Trust Board (NLTB), an independent organisation that represents the interests of Fiji’s traditional land-owners and is recognized by the Fijian Government as the primary negotiator of social benefits from tourism development. Although community initiatives are typically negotiated between the firm and its land-owning village, the NLTB has increasingly incorporated social criteria into new tourism lease agreements since 2004-05. These criteria have included prescriptions as to the type and level of village initiatives that tourism leaseholders are expected to undertake. While land-owners have some discretion over these requirements, standard conditions include creation of an education fund to assist the Mataqali (kinship groups with customary ownership of land) with education and training expenses. Other social benefits are also featured as lease conditions including assistance in providing village electricity and water supply, healthcare, construction of village halls, and purchase of boats. Lessees are also expected to give first preference to land-owners for employment opportunities and in the supply of all food items. Against this backdrop, the paper discusses the perceptions of tourism operators and host communities about the roles played by these intermediary actors in encouraging and regulating CSR in Fiji. It also considers the potential and limits for government regulation of CSR in a developing country such as Fiji.

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The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Efforts by University in Malaysia for the Environment: An Analysis; Jamilah Hj Ahmad, Lim Koon Ong & Suriati Saad, Malaysia

Abstract

The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been the talk about and agenda plan by most organisation across the globe. CSR is about capacity building for sustainable livelihoods. It respects cultural differences and finds the business opportunities in building the skills of employees, the community and the government. The most referred underlining concept of CSR derive from Caroll (1999) which look at CSR domain as a pyramid formed by four-parts; economic responsibility, legal, ethical and discretionary responsibility philanthropy. Upon talking about social responsibility, major concerns are put to CSR yet little was mentioned on how University can contribute in developing the social responsibility. The society of tomorrow begins today and to make up to this society, the University needs to have a drive, patience, and persistence towards achieving this goal. It is crucial for learning institutions to cope up with the present context demands, not only as a return to the community, in the form of community engagement involvement through students project, but also as a way to replenish its own actions and enlarge its source of reference, becoming an institution that help and partly involved in shaping a new society that is more ethical and engaged with its community and surroundings. This paper examines USR initiative of 14 public and private higher learning institutions in Malaysia. Survey was carried out with the objective to examine students understanding of USR activities; functions and practices in University. This paper also outlines how university should move forward in determining the most relevant path of social responsibility engagement and initiative. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR); Social Responsibility (SR)

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Student attitudes to socially responsible business: a case study of mine workers in Chile; Debbie Holley, UK

Abstract

The current credit-market meltdown and governance misbehavior has, once again, triggered conversations among business educators and the business press asking "Just what are they teaching in business schools?" (Gentile 2009). Given the explosion of press headlines around the recent financial meltdown and subsequent allocation of blame to Government, Bankers, the Bank of England, Financial Services Authority, and the role of educators in UK and world wide Business Schools, this paper seeks to explore the student perspectives on ethics by interpretations of written student coursework (Coffey & Atkinson 1996) and the results of a student questionnaire. Following Stake and his case study as a ‘choice of object to be studied’ (Stake 1994: 236), it will report on a cohort of 44 students and their efforts to address ethical issues and governance as part of an international purchasing undergraduate module (see appendix a for coursework briefing).

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Millennium's Dilemma: Genetically Modified Products and Their Reflections from the Social Responsibility Perspective; R. Şeminur Topal & Hande Gürdağ, Turkey

Abstract

Increasing world population, resulting in resource and ecological constraints such as poverty has led to efforts to lighten the burden of these negativities and the existing scientific methods have started to look for ways take advantage of technological developments. New resources being created or reinforced, even more the creation of resources to reflect current practices are also newly implemented. This results in genetic transfer process, a single cell alive in the appropriate gene(s); again transferred to other living organisms’ different characters to create new life and transfer techniques have been developed to implement the results. The development of measures on predetermined drawbacks such as human health, social structure and biodiversity, should be taken together. The technological and organizational changes that are provided with radical and rapid change usually have a permanent or non-recycling affect. The perceptions of the ethical dimensions of the subject, the interaction of the global dimension in line with the resulting widespread use of mind are discussed. Thus scientific and political questioning and judgments, are forcing the biotechnological products such as GMO and GMP’s, to evolution. With all these studies that are rapidly transferred to commercial applications, a global "Biosafety" concern has taken place in the agenda. The use of biotechnological applications, techniques used with the aim of the final product, or the genetic changes in living organisms, can sometimes create new and different risks, so the detection and security applications as a whole also requires special measures. However the "assessment - monitoring - control mechanisms" an institution-building and information sharing to cover the administrative structure that includes legal regulations are also required. Current and global development of measures, were identified by concerned international organizations with transparency and speed and they should be transferred to the implementation and importance should be given to information and education that provided the increase in consumer awareness. Also GMO’s & GMP's should be handled with sensitivity, urgently and carefully original norms / laws / organizations should be created. Cooperation with civil society organizations must be provided and current information must be provided via the widespread media. A state policy that respects the consumers’ right of getting information and choosing should be created and legal integration to the international platform should be provided. Currently, the transgenic technology products that constitute a great deal of multinational companies’ profit concerns are manufactured around the world in a very wide area and many products spread in an uncontrolled way. Although the issues continued to be encouraged by international and national missionaries by campaigns, a more cautious policy needs to be approached at least until the results of full certainty is obtained. Related global approaches, strategies and recommendations that are developed in line with social responsibility will be reflected. In this context, the current knowledge sharing, protection of the presence of agricultural crops (the flora), and environmental structure, food and consumer health care and the discussion of the GMO and GMP's potential impacts with transparency and the necessary regulations being completed before the widespread agriculture of GMOs and GMPs are about the basics of the ethical debate.

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Strategic Configuration of International Productive Assets: The case of Global Pharmaceutical Industry; Philippe Rebiere, France

Abstract

This article seeks to explore new patterns of international strategies for locating assets in production and research laboratories of major pharmaceutical firms. The analysis deciphers mutations in the pharmaceutical world and captures the strategic choices made by major laboratories to carry out the reconfiguration of their value chain. Many laboratories are required to reconfigure the location of their production activities and research to maximize the value chain. We observe a double phenomenon: International outsourcing strategy It just seems that international outsourcing is new because of the increasingly rapid speed with which business are sourcing components from developing countries such as China, Brazil or India. Offshoring strategy Offshoring is moving a value chain activity or a set of activities to another country where key cost are typically lower. Offshoring involves taking advantage of lower cost labor in another countries. The many US firms that have established assembly plants in Mexico are examples of offshoring without outsourcing. Outsourcing has evolved from a workload capacity management Business process outsourcing BPO the outsourcing of business activities required for the efficient operation of a company has long been the mainstay of several industries as functions such as accounting purchasing have been managed by external organizations. In the pharmaceutical industry discrete package of work such as the generation of clinical supply materials for preclinical or clinical testing and manufacturing have been outsourced. Outsourced manufacturing related activities have typically focused on tactical operations and have included primary and secondary packaging formulation active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacturing sterilization and labeling . With the evolution of outsourcing strategies, pharmaceutical companies are moving toward outsourcing high end process and outsourcing them to offshore destinations. The offshoring of high end and outsourcing them to offshore destinations in developing countries. Knowledge intensive work is termed knowledge process outsourcing KPO Know ledge based business process are outsourced to locations and organizations that offer domain expertise technical skills and cost effective operational efficiencies. Examples of KPO services include creating sharing maintaining tracking and disseminating knowledge across a variety of industry segments: these segments consist of pharmaceutical and biotech research and development as well as market research financial services . Drug discovery ad development KPO taking into taking into account skills afforded by a particular location can improve ROI. For example India has been known for its experience in reverse engineering of pharmaceuticals. Rapidly developing economies such as India and china offer sizable advantages and are underused by most companies and these doctrines are the fattest growing sources of demand in the world. It is important to note that international strategy configuration is much about strategy formulation as it is about implementation because management is making choices about which value chain components to centralize, where to centralize those operations geographically, and the degree to which those decentralized and centralized value chain activities will be managed and coordinated. The movement of outsourcing to emerging areas concerns productive assets but the phenomenon concerns the entire phase of research in China, India to Singapore. The object of the research is to understand how conceptual models derived from the strategic management literature can explain the choice of location of productive assets. This change in the global pharmaceutical industry calls for questions from researchers. Firstly, the problem is to explain the reasons behind the choice to locate abroad to countries which are emerging sites of production and centers of R&D? Secondly, how the internationalization activities are perceived by the leaders of the laboratories? Finally, what are the modes of entry used by laboratories in production and in research? To answer these questions, we intend to build on the conceptual models developed in the literature and compare the choices made by the laboratories as to the location of production facilities and R&D. Empirically, we analyze the decisions behind direct foreign investment and the choice of plant configurations and international R&D from the ten leading pharmaceutical companies. Theoretical models have identified the foreign direct investment abroad , the eclectic paradigm of Dunning, the Rugman matrix and the spatial patterns of Belberdos. Within this research, we show that these models can explain the strategic choices of major laboratories. In the first part, we use the literature on FDI to understand the reasons for locating activities abroad. What factors lead firms to invest abroad? What is the theoretical literature which is useful to research and practice on FDI? Which model can apply to investors wishing to operate in a host country? Then, we will seek to define the choice of mode of entry using Dunning’s eclectic approach . The eclectic paradigm of Dunning is a model explaining the international strategies of pharmaceutical companies. The eclectic theory provides a plausible explanation, arguing that entry is determined by the trade off between factors specific to the firm (which could support internalization) and factors specific to the location (which can militate against the internalization). In a second part, we seek to understand where laboratories are trying to locate their assets to obtain the best performance. From a dissection of the concept of geographic scope, we seek to identify the best practices of the laboratories. The decision to locate productive assets is a key element in the international strategy of firms. The concept of geographic scope has become an important concept in studies MNES. Then, we try to identify the strategies of international plant configuration and examine the choices of spatial configuration based on the concepts of Belberbos and Sleuwagen . We question how the choice is made in regions or countries where the location of activities is made taking as our model , the paradigm developed by Rugman. Much economic activity is included in clusters located in key regions of the triad and emerging economies. Rugman maintains that MNES act as “flagship” companies for driving, coordinating and managing their activities with high added value in a business network. We examine the conditions on which a regional or global manufacturing strategy is preferred by the leaders of laboratories.

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Corporate Social Responsibility in Post-Apartheid South Africa; Sharlene Ramlall, South Africa

Abstract

Business is under growing pressure, both locally and internationally, to live up to the ever-increasing legal norms in the area of human rights and corporate social responsibility. In South Africa, it has been argued that there is a moral and ethical duty on companies to give back to the communities from which they have benefitted for so long under the apartheid regime. In order to force companies to engage with corporate social responsibility, the South African government has enacted a myriad of laws such as the Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment Act 54 of 2002. In addition, the King Code of Corporate Governance Principles in South Africa (King III, 2009) has broadened the scope of corporate governance by adopting leadership, sustainability and corporate citizenship as its core philosophy. This paper will focus on whether governments’ initiatives in South Africa have been actively supported by business or whether business is merely paying lip-service to governments’ proposals. A few local case studies will be analysed to demonstrate the level of commitment that business in South Africa has thus far displayed in the arena of corporate social responsibility. This paper will argue that in order to prevent over-regulation in the area of corporate social responsibility, a proactive rather than reactive approach is required. Corporate social responsibility in the area of human rights should ultimately be based on commitment, partnership and pro-activity. If the commitment from business is genuine, it will prevent business from merely going through the motions and engaging in tick-box exercises. If companies adopt a model in terms of which they engage directly with the local community, this will contribute to the creation of a meaningful, human-rights friendly climate that gives due consideration to cultural diversity and the needs of the people.

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Objectivism vs Subjectivism in Academe: an example of Bourdieu’s concept of Mutilation in the Social Sciences?; Miriam Green, UK

Abstract

This paper continues research into representations in the academic literature of a text in the organisation/management field. It has been argued previously that mainstream representations of Burns’ and Stalker’s The Management of Innovation have at best partially encompassed their ideas on organisational change, concentrating on structural issues and using statistical techniques based on questionnaire surveys. What have usually been neglected are the dysfunctional aspects of change, based on human agency, stimulated by political and career ambitions and the influences of informal groups. The dominant discourses have been ‘objectivist’ with subjectivist elements ignored, both in textbooks and in research applications of Burns’ and Stalker’s ideas in academic journals, particularly management accounting journals. Various schools of social theory can be used further to understand the implications of such scholarship and to link these with explanations for these representations. One can turn the notion of objectivism against these same authors, through applying a social constructionist view of knowledge, namely that ‘truth’, far from reflecting ‘objective reality’ through objective data and empirical observations, is mediated by theoretical preconceptions that are dependent on subjective and selective world views. Fairclough, through critical discourse analysis, has pointed out that the type of language used, in terms of grammar for example, has political implications as it can either give subjectivist human agency presence or ignore it and make it invisible. Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis relates this to how far organisational processes are treated as abstract thereby ignoring and making invisible the human, subjectivist aspects. An explanation for these selective world views can be found in Bourdieu’s concept of habitus, which in academe is about the limitations on the power enjoyed by academics and the pressures upon them to engage in certain types of knowledge. Related to this is what is chosen as the object of inquiry which, according to Bourdieu, is a political act. In the case of mainstream representations of Burns’ and Stalker’s book, it is organisation structure. This links in to Bourdieu’s division in the social sciences into objectivist and subjectivist approaches, a division he regarded as a mutilation in sociological scholarship. Bourdieu regarded his own work as bridging this divide, calling himself a ‘constructive structuralist’ and a ‘structural constructivist’. Such a divide is evident not only in representations of Burns’ and Stalker’s book, but in scholarship in the organisation/management field generally as amply illustrated in one of the major US journals the American Science Quarterly. This paper will aim to provide explanations as to why there was not this bridge in the representations of Burns’ and Stalker’s book and indeed in organisation studies more generally.

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Clusters in corporate social responsibility; Maria João Santos, Portugal

Abstract

This study examines the theme of clusters in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Based on the current state of art about CSR and on investigations that are been realized in Portugal, this article shows the limitations that the current CSR practices have in overcome social, economic and environmental problems at the global level. Deepen the theme of the clusters like an integrated alternative of intervention, several genders of clusters and discusses aspects of their practices, as well as their potentiality and limitations. In spite of CSR appears associated to a competitive advantage that can be seen with benefits recognized in terms of global sustainability, it’s possible to verify that the CSR particular results of each enterprise and community separately are still insufficient, not only in terms of individual competitiveness, but also in terms of some global system alteration. According to studies, the positive impacts of the CSR can be improved if added to efforts of other enterprises, civil society and public sector. In this perspective, several authors have been integrating the Porter’s concept of clusters to value potentialities of CSR groupings at the reinforcement of the competitiveness and promotion of a sustainable development. This concept (clusters in CSR) presupposes that groupings of enterprises located in the same territory and with some interaction between then and with other local actors, can optimize practices that contributes to a supported development of the region, in an integrated and global perspective. The definition of social goals shared by different actors articulated in a net can improve the development of actions that exceed a sphere of micro actions, with lots of benefits to the local communities. Considering a larger proposition of intervention, which connect social different actors (enterprises, civil society organizations, local power), working for the construction of a development model based in the sustainable idea, is possible to visualize the relevance of the clusters in CSR. The analysis of these forms of social innovation, based in integrated networks of CSR, constitutes the central objective of the present research.

Key words: corporate social responsibility, clusters, CSR strategies; entrepreneurship; small and medium-sized enterprises.

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Corporate Volunteering in Portugal; Maria João Santos, Portugal

Abstract

Volunteering has frequently been adopted by companies as one of the instruments for implementing corporate social responsibility. Based upon a thorough overview of the contemporary literature on this theme, this article presents the results of a research project undertaken in Portugal on corporate volunteering and its main formats and incidences. The study covered a set of 169 company previously identified as demonstrating a high probability of undertaking volunteering programs. This company survey drew upon various sources of information, in particular, local volunteer entities, NGOs, foundations, among other organisations. Of these 169 companies that received a questionnaire, a total of 44 companies responded and directly participated with not all respondents engaging in volunteer programs. A summary of the results demonstrates that in Portugal corporate volunteering remains insignificant in scope and mostly aid/support based in nature. Only a small number of companies take part in voluntary programs and these are generally concentrated upon social support programs. Thus, these are primarily fairly traditional forms of intervention related to a presence-based logic characterised by direct support and the provision of basic needs. Other forms of private sector volunteering, which could be defined as qualified, are highly limited in extent. It was further found that the initiatives that did take place result more from a perceived need to meet employee and community expectations. Correspondingly, the results demonstrate how such situations result from only sporadic events and lacking in any significant pro-active posture of social intervention structured in terms of the regulatory frameworks in effect at the local/regional level. Regarding the structure of the corporate volunteering (CV) model, the most common is a single day per year. Another option, such as carrying out voluntary work during the course of the working schedule or providing variable amounts of time in accordance with existing requests, is not common. Despite the low level of CV in Portugal, the results broadly show that from the strictly corporate perspective, such practices do make a relevant contribution towards boosting the business strategy in effect and on returns as well as in terms of boosting the professional and human competences of members of staff. Despite the benefits identified, companies often run into difficulties, resistance and obstacles to implementation. The lack of time available to companies and the lack of a voluntarism culture without doubt ensure such factors are more difficult to face down and overcome. The lack of pre-structured voluntary programs and the lack of organisation at host institutes are other issues challenging companies. Despite such problems, such practices are tending to increase especially within a context of a greater and more active corporate social responsibility. The leading research outputs of this paper feature theoretical insight into corporate volunteering, its features, characteristics and gains. In empirical terms, the research details a cross-section of corporate volunteering in Portugal. This involves an innovative study on this theme within the Portuguese context that provides a characterisation of voluntary actions undertaken across the private sector, how they are structured, the benefits and advantages identified by the companies themselves as well as the difficulties encountered along the way.

Key words: corporate volunteering, corporate social responsibility, sustainable development, Portugal.

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Fluidity of Regulation-CSR Nexus and Social Reporting: The Multinational Corporate Corruption Model; Onyeka Osuji, UK

Abstract

Compared to financial reporting corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting is largely undeveloped despite its increasing importance to corporations. Part of the difficulties is the possible inexactness of the scope of CSR. Another difficulty is the apparent reluctance by regulatory authorities and policy makers to intervene in the area. This is largely as a result of the inhibitions created by the traditional approaches to company law with emphasis on shareholder protection and financial disclosure. The consequence is the stultification of independent development of ‘pure’ CSR by constantly tying social issues to financial performance and prospects and restriction of social reporting to narrative reports of non-financial matters with financial impact on corporations. The UK’s focus on the enlightened shareholder model exemplifies this approach to CSR. However, this regulatory attitude might not be unconnected to the theoretical and practical challenges faced by regulators and policy makers in justifying CSR and defining its scope. The underlying impediment is the apparent factual and theoretical failure to distinguish ‘instrumental’ and ‘pure’ CSR in social reporting. This paper demonstrates that cognizance of the intrinsic moral justification of ‘pure’ CSR might assist in delineating the scope of CSR as well as clarifying the desirability and extent of regulation of social reporting. It argues that the dynamic history and visage of multinational corporate corruption illuminates the issues and the fluidity of the regulation-CSR relationship. A principal stance of this paper is that regulation is neither incompatible nor irreconcilable with CSR. The current and widening backlash against transnational corporate corruption is, arguably, a demonstration of the position that regulation and CSR are not mutually exclusive and absolute concepts. A key factor is the apparent grasp of the ‘purely moral’ basis of the anti-corruption movement. This paper submits that recognising and applying this ‘pure’ and ‘instrumental’ CSR distinction is fundamental to the development of CSR and resolution of connected questions of regulating social reporting.

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The Role of Non-governmental Organizations in Improving Social Entrepreneurship Skills of University Students; Ilke Oruc & Muammer Sarikaya

Abstract

This study aims at investigating the role of non-governmental organizations in providing social entrepreneurship trainings and in helping university students to improve their social entrepreneurship skills, which is quite significant since these students are the prospective employees in business world. In order to obtain data for this analysis, a leading NGO in Turkey and its activities will be examined: namely Educational Volunteers Foundation. For the purposes of the study, the number of university students and their fields of study in this foundation will be determined. Based on the data to be obtained from this analysis phase, the attempts by the foundation to improve these students’ social entrepreneurship skill, which is an important component of philanthropy, will be dealt with. The importance of social entrepreneurs has recently increased both in business world and social life. Assuming certain roles in solving social problems, companies try to fulfill their responsibilities especially by focusing on their social entrepreneurship roles. Two of the most effective methods to encourage social entrepreneurship are to increase the number of memberships to NGOs and to have more civilian support in solving social problems. Therefore; this study will provide valuable data regarding the social entrepreneurship roles of university students, who will constitute the employees of the future.

Key words: NGO’s, social entrepreneurship, volunteerism

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Municipal Utilities as Publicly Owned Enterprises – A Cross Between Private Companies and Public-Political Management. Governmental influence on the corporate accountability as stakeholders of the organization; Linne Marie Lauesen, Denmark

Abstract

This paper highlights the schism of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Danish municipal water- and sewer utilities organized as publicly owned enterprises (PoE) in their organizational role between being a private and a political organization. The 'governmental', political stakeholder-influence on the corporate accountability is the essence of this paper. In Denmark the municipalities was aggregated into fewer municipalities but larger with the “Local Government Reform” effectuated the 1st of January 2007 by the Structural Agreement. A new “Water Sector law” instructed municipalities to separate operation from authority by establishing new municipally owned utilities such as limited liability companies. The schism consists of the PoEs as service companies organized and driven as legal companies according to the Companies Act and economically subjected to the Annual Accounts Act, but controlled by the municipal politicians and authorities who decides and develop guidelines for the company in terms of water and wastewater plans, municipal plans and regional plans, that the company must comply. While being privatized, municipal politicians still have the power to change and affect the PoEs which gives some advantages but also disadvantages and yields and limits the freedom according to CSR-initiatives. As stakeholders of the organization (of the PoE) the (local) governmental influence on the corporate accountability is paramount. The paper will be based on theoretical literature research on the topic of social responsibility in as well private and political organizations related to the hybrid-organization of the publicly owned enterprises in Denmark as well as research on consequences of the implementation of the Water Sector law and relevance to CSR. The research prefers European and Scandinavian authors, to which it is relevant to relate the present Danish societal appearance to. Since the privatization and autonomization of former public industries (Moon & Vogel 2008) and bureaus has been moving from UK to Continental Europe, the changes in responsibilities of corporations (Ibid.) and CSR-conceptualism has moved from the US-trend towards a “European” trend in Europe (See Matten & Moon 2004). Moon & Vogel argues that as a result of this the growth of CSR in Europe must be understood in relation to the changes in public sector governance that have occurred the last two decades by the privatization and reform of the welfare state (Moon & Vogel 2008) as seen in Denmark in the recent years. The paper will research authors like Rhodes (1996), Peters (1996) and Deakin & Walsh (1996) that have reflected on these issues as well as Moon (2004), Moon & Sochaski (1996, 1998), Crane & Matten (2004), Matten (2004), Matten & Moon (2004). Welford (2004) and the literature study by Garriga et al. (2004). Relevant Danish authors like Pedersen (2008), Vallentin (2009) and Jespersen (2003) will also appear. The Matten & Moon (2004) concept of European CSR-trend as dominantly 'implicit' (versus 'explicit (US)) CSR explained by institutional theories we would like to investigate in our examination of CSR-relationships in publicly owned enterprises in Denmark.

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The three directional tug of war within customer data management: business strategy versus regulation versus corporate social responsibility; Diana Luck, UK

Abstract

Since its onset in the 1980s, in spite of avid interest from academics and professionals, Relationship Marketing has been persistently surrounded by an element of confusion and even cynicism (Reichheld 1996, Mattsson 1997, Egan 2001). Yet, four decades since Relationship Marketing was first conceptualised, one of its main sub-components, CRM, is being hailed as the ultimate strategy. Throughout the previous decade when the components of Relationship Marketing were refined into distinct strategic communications platforms, Customer Relationship Marketing and Customer Relationship Management have been associated with various objectives and differing perspectives. Accordingly, while CRM was at times referred to as being synonymous to a form of marketing such as database marketing (Khalil & Harcar, 1999), services marketing (Grönroos, 1994), and customer partnering (Kamdampully & Duddy, 1999) for instance, at other times it was specified in terms of more specific marketing objectives such as customer retention (Walters & Lancaster, 1999a), customer share (Rich, 2000), and customer loyalty (Reichheld & Schefter, 2000). The exact nature of the CRM approach remained persis¬tently elusive while its realm remained unquestionably complex. A decade later, such academics as Egan (2007), Fill (2008), Hollensen (2008), Luck and Stephenson (2009) as well as Yu and Cude (2009) have all emphasised the importance of data mining of consumer information in order to achieve the holy grail of dealing with consumers: Precise Targeting. Although varied objectives and strategies are still evident, the role of database management and targeted communications as well as knowledge management (Luck, 2009) are highlighted as being integral to contemporary Relationship Marketing and CRM. Accordingly, data about consumers is being avidly overtly and covertly gathered and dissected. The online environment is ideal to collate information about consumers. Notwithstanding, concerns about the intrusion of consumer privacy through behavioural and personalised online advertising and online data collection persist. On 31st March 2009, Meglena Kuneva, The European Consumer Commissioner speaking at the Roundtable on Online Data Collection emphasised how current opt-out systems are often partial if at all present, and how more often than not consumers were unable to navigate their way around these to suit their specific privacy wishes (Europe Press Release Rapid (a), 2009). The Federal Trade Commission, FTC, a US agency for consumer protection (2009) supported further roundtables to debate the issue of online data collection and the infringement of consumer privacy in the name of enhanced communications. The fact that there is no global regulation and even clear national regulation suggest that it is largely left to companies to be ethical. However given that data is considered to be increasingly fundamental to business success creates a dichotomy. Can data collection be socially responsible? If so, who needs to be responsible? This paper intends to look into the issue of data collection within the remit of precise communications and contemporary CRM as this topic is not only a major yet ongoing concern for consumers but just as importantly becoming so for companies too.

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Is Ethical Marketing an Oxymoron?; Khosro S Jahdi, UK

Abstract

When Bodo Schlegelmich was contemplating writing a book on marketing ethics, back in 1998, his intention had attracted a number of interesting comments. Some people could not see it as a proper subject as marketing managers possessed no ethics! Some thought it would not take long to write such a book as there is no such thing as ethics in marketing. Others remarked that ethics and business do not mix: ‘business’, they stated, ‘is mostly immoral or at best, amoral’. A number of people while acknowledging the importance of ethical decision making doubted the viability and appropriateness of debating ethics in a textbook. They viewed ethics as a personal matter and not one for public discussion. If one were to write a book on ethical marketing today, perhaps similar remarks would apply with equal vehemence. Although marketing has made some inroads into the realm of ethics and social responsibility, the long list of unethical activities and operations attributed to marketing which have occurred in the recent past and are perhaps happening now, would be cited as evidence that ethical marketing is indeed an oxymoron. Unfortunately, ethical marketing is currently more of an exception than the rule. There are pockets of ethical marketing, resembling electric fans, in a smoke filled bar of less ethical or indeed, unethical business tavern. They are intended to freshen up the atmosphere and make it more tolerable for the non-smokers, but instead they simply circulate the dirty air. This paper examines the viability, practicality and the logic behind applying ethical marketing within an organisation. Examples and case studies will be used to argue that it is indeed feasible to have such a concept as ethical marketing and to be able to implement it too. Key Words: ethical marketing, CSR within marketing, ethical decision making.

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Exploring Corporate Social Responsibility in the UK Healthcare Managerial Sector; Faruk Merali, UK

Abstract

This on-going longitudinal study explores the reasons why managers choose to work in a socially responsible organisation such as in the UK healthcare sector and their views of their professional identity and public image. Through primary research involving in-depth face to face interviews with 47 managers working within the UK National Health Service (NHS) and with 10 managers working in a large UK private health care organisation, this comparative study seeks to develop an insight into the day to day realities and experiences of these managers and the motives, if any, underpinning their reasons for choosing to work in either a public or private sector healthcare environment. In conjunction with this, this study also examines the publicised CSR strategies adopted by these two organisations in relation to the extent that they explicitly reflect the commitment and contribution of their staff to their organisations’ socially responsible ethos. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to theoretical frameworks and literature related to CSR, organisation culture, professional identity and institutional theory in an integrated manner within this development paper.

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Influence of Global Financial Market on Process of Harminization of Financial Statements for Listed Companies all over the World; Branka Ramljak & Paško Anić – Antić, Croatia

Abstract

As participants in the process we use the word globalization daily in different situations. What is the relationship of accounting and globalization? The answer to this question lies in the standardization of financial statements which the company presents in the securities market. The fact is that there are many differences in financial reporting practices of companies in different countries. This causes great problems for those who prepare, consolidate, audit, and interpret the published financial statements, particularly regarding the definition of the categories within the financial statements, and use of different criteria for their recognition and measurement. This is precisely the reason for international standardization of financial reporting, which is being developed as standardization of both measurement and content of financial statements. Standardization of measurement refers to the compliance of methods and evaluations of individual items in financial statements. Standardization of content means harmonization of disclosure requirements, or what kind of relevant information must be disclosed by a company in its financial statements. IASB is very active, and in an effort to further develop and strengthen the process of standardization of financial reporting the IFRS emerge. Key factors of competitiveness imposed by globalization become the quantity, quality and speed of information needed for good management and survival on the market. Sharp competition and survival in the market force investors, creditors, companies, and other participants in financial markets to take risks, and for efficient risk management information is of vital importance. The best providers of information needed in decision-making by financial markets participants are financial statements as the final product of accounting process in a company. They provide essential background information in any decision-making process. The authors of the article will present the requirements for disclosure by listed companies in most important capital markets over the world, and thus also the process of harmonization of financial reporting, at least when it comes to listed companies. For this purpose, they will take into account the relative strength and size of the world's most important capital markets.

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Political and economic imperatives of monetary sovereignty; Branka Mraović, Croatia

Abstract

The author focuses on the challenge posed by financial globalization before the traditional Westphalian model of monetary sovereignty, claiming that financial globalization of the world’s markets leads to new forms of geopolitical rivalry among contemporary governments. Relying on Cohen’s (2008) concept of deterritorialization of money, the focus of interest of this paper is the interaction between economic and political imperatives of monetary sovereignty in the global era. The author’s standpoint is that monetary relations are primarily political relations, which must be viewed in their historical setting. Understanding globalization as political struggle for money, the author is focused on the way in which the economic condition of postmodernity is interwined with the linguistic and symbolic superstructure. This means that a strictly economic cost-benefit calculus of international currency is possible, but not productive, without taking into account the following question: Who makes the rules and who exercises power regarding monetary issues?

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On the Concept of Civic Entrepreneurship; Ismaël Sene, France

Abstract

Within the developing field of entrepreneurship, a new domain of “civic entrepreneurship” is emerging (Henton & al. 1997 ; Leadbeater & Goss, 1999 ; Banuri & Najam ed. 2002 ; Christopoulos, 2009 ; Hansen, 2002). It appears to provide a key element in the elucidation of the complex issues that regional communities are facing nowadays, notably in terms of the “common good”. But as for any emerging domain, the notion of civic entrepreneurship is far from established as a clear concept. The aim of our paper is therefore to contribute to such a definition, on a theoretical basis. Arguing that civic entrepreneurship is linked to a specific category of value, we firstly provide a new perspective on the whole field of entrepreneurship. By discriminating three fields of value that can be mainly targeted by an entrepreneur, we are able to define the specific locus of civic entrepreneurship. We clearly separate it from social entrepreneurship on the one hand, and business entrepreneurship on the other. For that purpose, we first need to formulate two key distinctions. Firstly, a separation between the legal status, and the social destinations of entrepreneurial entities. That distinction, which is frequently omitted, is shown to be necessary to avoid a broad range of misunderstandings. Secondly, we rely on the economic anthropology of Godelier (2007) to articulate three domains of social valuing : The Market, The Gift and The Sacred. On that basis, we argue that civic entrepreneurship is rooted in the third domain, that of the sacred. From this characterisation, we investigate the theoretical conditions of a civic enterprise. These conditions cover not only the driving forces, but also the formal definition, of civic entrepreneurship. We conclude with the formulation of three constitutive principles : socio-political innovation ; values transmutation ; and defence of a Social Choice.

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Institutionalizing corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Uganda: Does it matter?; Stephen K. Nkundabanyanga & Alfred Okwee, Uganda

Abstract

This study contributes to the dearth of CSR literature on the African experience by examining the perceptions of managers on CSR’s predictive potential of corporate financial performance in Uganda. The study used quantitative, correlation and regression analyses and collected primary data through a structured questionnaire. We examined the Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility, Managerial Discretion and Competences, Learning and Efficiency on Perceived Corporate Financial Performance. The results indicate that corporate social responsibility and perceived corporate financial performance correlate significantly but the finding that corporate social responsibility is not a significant predictor of perceived corporate financial performance negates this relationship. That is, managerial discretion and competences, learning and efficiency are significant predictors of perceived corporate financial performance but CSR is not. This extends further the protracted debate about the legitimacy and value of corporate responses to CSR concerns. However, a combination of CSR, managerial discretion and competences, learning and efficiency predicted up to 73.8% of perceived corporate performance. Consequently, we post a serendipitous result that managerial discretion’s predictive potential of perceived corporate performance is moderated by CSR. We propose that while upholding the ideals of CSR, companies in Uganda need to enhance managerial discretion in their contracting process and develop competences, learning and efficiency in order impact positively on performance. Type of paper: Research paper Key Words: CSR, Managerial Discretion, Competences, Corporate financial performance, Uganda

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Translation of sustainability measures in management control systems - Sustainability strategy and product design; Nico P. Berhausen, Germany

Abstract

This paper shows how the change of input variables of management control systems can translate decisions in product design without altering the configuration of the management control system. Filling the gap between sustainability strategy and product design decisions through the translation of non-financial measures into financial measures may lead to changes in decision networks in place. Interviews, data and the use of the ANT approach following decisions around calculations reflect the research approach. Different types of strategies do not necessarily cause different management control systems configurations but can be addressed by changing the input variables of management control system calculations

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Employing Football as means for Sustainable Corporate Social Programmes, Anagostopoulus

Abstract

The notion of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become an area of increasing importance for many companies and organisations in various business sectors. It can be argued that when it comes to CSR, there are few (if any) differences between a professional sport organisation and a conventional corporation. It is only recently that European professional sport organisations have recognised that their actual nature and role both fall into and greatly link with the concept of CSR. Particularly in football, and given the ever-increasing commercial aspect associated with it, along with the increased pressure from an equally growing number of stakeholders (i.e. governments, media, sponsors, fans, local councils), all have led football organisations to adapt part of their operational strategies to this new scene by undertaking CSR activities. In essence, however, sport organisations – and football in particular - are implicitly entwined with local communities and society in general, something that can hardly be supported by commercial business organisations. It has also been reported (see, for example, Smith and Westerbeek, 2007) that sport presents some unique features associated with CSR such as youth appeal, mass media contribution as well as communication power and certainly positive health impacts. The purpose of this paper is not to present the reasons why football –as the dominant sport in most European countries – can serve as the ideal platform for sustainable CSR; this becomes evident throughout the discussion. The main goal here is to stress the need and importance for strategic partnerships between either Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) or conventional business and professional football organisations (i.e. Associations, Leagues, Football Clubs) in order for the CSR implementation to reach high standards and ultimately have a real effect on society. The paper begins by briefly sketching the factors that distinguish football from other, more conventional, types of business. Then a concise overview of the CSR concept is given, before the author refers to the, arguably, limited literature on football in relation to CSR. The paper, then, draws on UEFA’s Football and Social Responsibility strategy to illustrate the means of how, and the reasons why carefully selected partners can offer successful schemes for sustainable CSR programmes. It finally suggests ways in which conventional businesses can enhance their CSR approaches by employing football as a means to achieve this.

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Social Innovation in India, Huzaifa Khorakiwala

Abstract

Innovation is a process of taking new ideas to satisfied customers. It is the conversion of new knowledge into new products and services. Innovation is about creating value and increasing efficiency, and therefore growing the business. Social innovation refers to new strategies, concepts, ideas and organization that meet social needs of all kinds - from working conditions and education to community development and health - and that extend and strengthen civil society. Individual creativity is reflected in originality, competence, experience, determination, flexibility, positive outlook. These must be appropriately channelised towards innovation in the social context, through careful planning and execution of clearly defined goals. The following are the examples of individual creativity working towards social innovation in India.  Devi Shetty: Narayana Hrudayalaya. Providing low cost healthcare services to the poor in the form of heart surgeries  Ashok Rathod: Oscar. Developing sports talent among slum children  B K Soni: Ecoreco. Disposing of e-waste in an eco-friendly manner  Gijs Spoor: Zameen Organic: Helping cotton growers get a fair price for their produce  G Venkataswamy: Arvind Eye Hospital: Providing low cost eye care to the poor  Harish Hande: Selco. Providing affordable solar energy home products to the rural poor  Huzaifa Khorakiwala: Wockhardt Foundation. Upliftment of the poor, weak and needy through healthcare services and spreading good human values. Innovations include the concept of Warriors, use of web 2.0, advocacy meetings, publications

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Social Responsibility of University: The Way Forward, Jamilah Hj Ahmad, Lim Koon Ong, Suriati Saad

Abstract

The pressure on every organisation to play role in Social Responsibility (SR) initiative is increasing by day. A lot of activities, research and efforts are done on Corporate Social Responsibility platform at business oriented organisation. Little are done to study the need and role played by SR in educational institution. Developing and creating awareness towards the needs of SR initiatives and practices are best initiated and nurtured as early as a learning institute level. However, in doing so various definition, concept, and standard of practicing SR need to be reviewed. This is needed in order to ensure SR initiative of higher learning institution has its own platform which differs from the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices in profit oriented organisations. An online survey was conducted among the university stakeholders through out Malaysia. The objective is to gather information on the stakeholders’ expectation of how SR initiative should be carried out in university. This paper will outline how university should move forward in determining the most relevant path of SR engagement and initiative.

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Measuring the impacts of employee volunteering, Marija Ivković, Smart Kolektiv & Alekse Nenadovića, Belgarde

Abstract

The paper describes how the effects of employee volunteering in the projects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be measured. Employee’s volunteering appear as one of the specific forms of social responsibility where their work and knowledge contribute to achieving common social goals and solve concrete problems in the local community. This topic is relevant because for the business it is extremely important to have some means to measure and display the results. Measuring the effects of these actions is important for the direct beneficiaries and the wider community in order to have better insight into the importance and benefits of such actions. The paper has a combined approach and gives a model that can be applied to measure the various components of voluntary activity, paying attention to the inputs, outputs and outcomes. It also presents different approaches to this issue, taking into account the results and effects related to the business and the community. A special focus is placed on measuring quantitative and qualitative components of the effects of employee volunteering.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, volunteering, measuring the impacts of volunteering.

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Doctoral Colloquium Abstracts

 

Are financial market Greenhouse gas-efficient?; Andrea Liesen, UK

Abstract

Assuming semi-strong market efficiency as proposed by Eugene F. Fama in the 1970s, all readily available information is priced into the stock price of a firm. Also according to that train of thought, stocks that entail greater systematic risk than others should provide investors with a so called risk premium, i.e. higher expected returns to compensate for the additional risk assumed. This research addresses the question whether financial markets are informational Greenhouse gas (GHG)-efficient in the semi-strong or strong form of market efficiency, i.e. it examines whether share prices factor in information on the increasing threat that GHG-emissions pose to the ability of some companies to generate profits in the future. Unknown future costs for GHG-emissions under the European Emissions Trading Scheme are just one of many ways in which GHG-emissions become a threat to the ability of some companies to generate profits in the future. If financial markets were informational GHG-efficient, they should provide investors of some companies with a premium for the additional GHG-induced risk assumed. If financial markets were not reflecting the impact of GHG-emissions on future corporate financial performance, some investments contained an undetected GHG-induced risk. Performing various portfolio studies using the Fama-French-Carhart Four Factor Model, this PhD-thesis examines whether financial markets factor in information on the increasing threat that GHG-emissions pose to the ability of some companies to generate profits in the future. The paper opens with embedding the research question in the relevant bodies of literature (i.e. literature on market efficiency and literature that relates corporate environmental to stock performance). Subsequently, the argument and hypotheses are developed and the methodologies and data sets used to test these hypotheses are introduced. Finally, the expected project outcomes are briefly presented. Special attention is given to the deficiencies of GHG-reporting by companies.

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Understanding the interface between corporate social responsibility and poverty reduction; Sally Curtis, Australia

Abstract

This research will examine how business contributes to poverty reduction in a developing country through CSR practices. In recent years international development agencies such as the United Nations, The World Bank and NGOs have recognised the potential of business to contribute to poverty reduction through corporate social responsibility (CSR). Whilst business recognises the need to manage its relationship with society, as evidenced by the increased adoption of CSR activities, there is debate about whether CSR practices are able to contribute to poverty reduction. Consequently, our understanding of the contribution that CSR practices can make to poverty reduction, particularly in developing countries, is still limited. The increased pressure on business to contribute to poverty reduction, combined with calls for a more holistic approach to CSR, suggests that there is a need to conduct research at a country level to understand how CSR practices can best contribute to poverty reduction in a systematic way. As such, this research will involve a multi-level analysis (country, business and community) in a small developing country and focus on the following research questions:  In what ways are development actors (eg government and NGOs) seeking to engage business in reducing poverty?  In what ways have CSR activities assisted to reduce poverty in the country?  What motivates business to develop and implement CSR initiatives?  Are CSR practices different across industries within the country?  How do CSR activities align with the country’s priorities related to poverty reduction?  What is the impact of CSR activities on the livelihoods of the local people? The research will draw on poverty reduction literature to determine the measures for the study. It is anticipated that measures used in this study will be multidimensional and include income as well as non-income dimensions of poverty. Primary and secondary research methods will be utilised for collecting data. Country level data will be gathered from publicly available documents relevant to the country from sources such as the government, The World Bank, NGOs and business. This will be complemented with primary data collection involving interviews with relevant stakeholders such as government officials, business leaders, business employees, local people and NGOs.

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Governance mechanisms, intellectual capital and corporate performance; Stephen K. Nkundabanyanga, Uganda

Abstract

The agency theory, which is part of the positivist group of theories that derives from the financial economics literature, makes a distinct classification between business owners and the managers of the businesses and has been put forward to explain and predict the attributes of boards and how these in turn affect corporate performance. However, the role of the board as an important governance mechanism has now come into question with the ‘‘meltdown’’ of significant companies such as Enron Corp., India’s Satyam computer services, WorldCom, Inc., K-mart, Greenland bank and Global Crossing Ltd, etc. This has given rise to unprecedented need for shareholder protection reflected in corporate governance policy documents and codes of practice (for a review, see Van den & Baelden, 2005) and leading managers to embrace corporate governance policy documents and codes of practice more as a survival strategy than a first preference. It has been argued that practical governance mechanisms introduce further operating complexities for management while increasing costs and reducing decision speeds and flexibility (Duden & Pech, 2006). It is probably for these reasons that recent researchers report low predictive validity of prevailing governance mechanisms for corporate performance (see for example Abor & Nicholas, 2007) and similarly, the relatively mixed findings (for examples see Aluchna (2009); Monks & Minow, 2004; Roades et al, 2002; Pajuste, 2002; Elloumi & Guelie, 2001; Hambrick &Jackson, 2000; Dalton et al, 1999; Conyon & Peck, 1998; Dalton et al, 1998; Zajac and Westphal, 1996; Holderness & Sheehan, 1988; Neun &Santerre, 1986). Given these findings, some scholars have tried to explain the extent to which performance of firms might be improved via firms’ Intellectual Capital. Their conclusion that the profitability of a firm can significantly be improved by means of managing intellectual capital (e.g. Ghosh & Mondal, 2009) calls for appropriate governance mechanisms. There are, as well, mixed results on the IC predictive potential of corporate performance (Hang Chan, 2009 part 1 &2) which contradict earlier findings by Riahi-Belkaoui, (2003); Chen, Cheng and Hwang, (2005) and more recently Cleary (2006). Therefore, it is difficult to imagine that IC alone or governance mechanisms without developing appropriate IC could meaningfully influence performance positively. In this paper we argue that since the predictive potential of intellectual capital and corporate governance mechanisms has been studied independently, a balance needs to be achieved between attaining satisfactory levels of shareholder protection (through governance mechanisms) versus allowing and supporting a managerial approach that is highly responsive and agile in relation to the external business landscape (through leveraging IC). Thus, for purposes of obtaining acceptable corporate performance, prevailing governance mechanisms appear to be inadequate and therefore, the present study is an attempt to a search for efficient predictors of corporate performance in addition to prevailing governance mechanisms.

Key words: Governance mechanisms, intellectual capital, corporate performance, Uganda

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Chair of the Network: Professor Dr David Crowther, UK